Sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash, is one of the most important and most used chemicals in the industry and has many applications. The main application of sodium carbonate is in the glass industry. After cooling at high temperature it is turned into glass and combined with sand.
It is produced on an industrial scale. The purity is usually reported based on the amount of sodium oxide.
The chemical formula is a white or colorless solid. It is also a fairly strong base and has many uses. Sodium carbonate is available in both crystalline and powder forms.
In 1791 a French chemist named Nicholas Lebanons used coal to produce. He first boiled sodium chloride and converted it to sodium sulfate. Then the sodium sulfate was heated with sideways rock and crushed coal until it eventually turned into sodium carbonate. Until the late 1880s, this method was used to produce.
It is the most widely used chemical. The high use of this material and the high impact of yen in various industrial fields، has caused it to find many fans and be used by countless craftsmen.
One of the chemical reactions is the reaction with carbonic acid (carbon dioxide), which results in the production of sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogen carbonate).
In the past, it was extracted from plant ash that grew on sodium-rich soils. That is why it is called sodium carbonate. Nowadays it is for Industrial from the reaction of hydrated lime (calcium carbonate) salts with sodium chloride during the process of Solvay or process of soda, ammonia synthesis can be. As mentioned above, it is one of the most important applications of sodium carbonate in the glass industry. So that by heating this material at a very high temperature and then combining with sand and then cooling glass you get.
There are generally two ways to produce which are:
2-extraction from natural sources
In 1861, a Belgian chemist named Ernest Solvay introduced a method for the synthesis of sodium carbonate in which sodium chloride and limestone (calcium carbonate) were used as raw materials and ammonia was used as a catalyst.
In this method, first the salt sodium chloride will dissolve in water, can live up to a saturated solution of salt to be obtained, then by passing a saturated solution of salt from the two towers consecutive time. in the tower the first bubbles of ammonia from the bottom of the tower towards the top, the reaction can be done. It is absorbed and dissolved by the salt solution. In the second tower by injecting carbon dioxide gas the bubbles of this gas pass through the solution and sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogen carbonate or baking soda).
The carbon dioxide required for this step is obtained from the thermal decomposition of limestone (calcium carbonate). By heating limestone, in addition to carbon dioxide, calcium oxide is also obtained, which will be used in ammonia recycling.
The product of this process is sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride solution, which is passed through a filter, its sodium bicarbonate is separated and transferred to the next stage of sodium carbonate production.
You get the carbon dioxide needed for this stage of thermal decomposition of the rock calcium carbonate. By heating the rock in addition to carbon dioxide you get calcium oxide which will be used in the recycling.
The product of this Ferrand is a solution of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride, which is separated by passing through the filter، sodium bicarbonate and transferred to the next stage of sodium carbonate production.
Sodium bicarbonate is converted to sodium carbonate in the first stage by thermal method. It should be noted that the carbon dioxide obtained at this stage is returned to the first stage for reuse.
On the side of this process, ammonium chloride, with zinc oxide, calcium resulting from the process of thermal decomposition of limestone (calcium carbonate) reaction, the ammonia dropped to the first stage of the reaction returns. Also, a by-product of this is calcium chloride, which can be sold.
It should be noted that depending on the soil conditions of Agriculture in different countries, instead of recycling ammoniac the product of ammonium chloride can be sold directly as a chemical fertilizer.
The raw materials needed to produce sodium carbonate in this way are: rock hack (calcium carbonate) sodium chloride salt and amoniac.
Sodium carbonate production must be at l east 84% pure. But with regard to the quality of the mine the purity of the rock it is different so the consumption in the production of sodium carbonate is different. consumption according to the quality of stone (84% to 98%) is about 1090-1820 kg per ton of produced product.
Salt consumed in this ferrinde is about 1500-1830 kg per ton of produced product, depending on the quality.
In this method, mineral compounds such as trona and nephelin contain sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate are exploited. This method is used in countries such as America and Turkey, which have large reserves of Trona.