Urea is a type of nitrogen fertilizer that is not expensive and its NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium) ratio is 0-0-46. Although is naturally produced in humans and animals, synthetic urea is also produced by non-hydrated ammonium. It can provide the highest amount of nitrogen to the farmer at the lowest price. When using this fertilizer in the soil, you should be careful about some points, so that nitrogen is not lost through chemical reactions.
Chemical fertilizers are divided into different types based on ingredients (mainly nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) and the purpose of adding them to the soil can be compensated for the lack of element needed for plant growth.
Choosing the right chemical fertilizer requires knowing the characteristics and properties of the soil, this recognition is usually done by sampling the soil and determining important parameters such as pH, nitrogen, phosphorus and Due to the widespread use among farmers, we intend to see the properties and characteristics of this fertilizer, its effects and the amount of consumption in fruit trees, corn, rice and other agricultural products.
This product is produced when carbon dioxide reacts with non-hydrated ammonia. This process takes place under high pressure and at a temperature of 180 degrees Celsius. The urea obtained from this process is processed to form solid granules or balls called perils. Dry urea is completely soluble in water and should be stored away from moisture until consumed.
When it is deposited on the soil surface, it is converted to ammonium bicarbonate by a chemical process. Ammonium turns into a gas, if it is not protected, it will be destroyed. This means that for maximum efficiency of this fertilizer.
it must be mixed with soil. There are two ways to achieve this goal: either must be spread on the soil surface and then immediately plowed well with the soil, or must be injected directly into the soil. In the second method, it can be spread on the soil surface and then with a heavy irrigation, the dissolved urea can be directed to the lower parts of the soil.
In general, this product can provide the highest amount of nitrogen to soil and crops at the lowest cost. This material is easy to store and does not pose a fire hazard in the long run. Urea can be used either alone or mixed with other fertilizers.
For plants that grow better in acidic soils, urea fertilizer is one of the best options to prevent soil acidification. In the cultivation of crops such as corn, strawberries and other plants that need high nitrogen, urea fertilizer is able to provide high amounts of nitrogen to the plant immediately.
After the chemical reactions that occur with the use in the soil, special care must be taken to prevent ammonium from evaporating. This becomes a problem for farmers who grow on large farms. The high solubility of this product makes it necessary to store it in a dry state.
It was first produced by the German chemist Behind Frederick Weller in 1828. Prior to that, organic sources such as urine, dark soil, manure, and compost were the only sources of this macronutrient used. Over the last century, other chemical compounds have been used as nitrogen fertilizers that are better than urea fertilizers.
Ammonium nitrate (N2H4O3) is one of these compounds in which the NPK rate is 0-0-34. On the other hand, the NPK grade of urea is 0-0-46, which makes it economically viable to transport. 90% of the amount of urea that is produced artificially is used in the production of fertilizers.
One of the most common impurities in urea fertilizer is (C2H5N3O2). It decomposes in soil but this process takes a long time. On the other hand, during the decomposition process, this substance is poisonous to the plant. Like other sources of nitrogen, it can damage plants on its own: Nitrogen may kill seed germination or stop the process altogether. Too much nitrogen also “burns” products.
The first step in making urea nitrogen (CH4N2O) absorbable by the plant is to convert it to ammonia (NH3) or ammonium ions (NH4 +) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3−). Naturally, the ammonia oxidizing bacterium (AOB) accelerates this process with the help of the enzyme urease.
Thus, during a process called “nitrogen compounding”, ammonia is oxidized to produce nitrite. Nitrite oxidizing bacterium (NOB) oxidizes nitrite and nitrate is obtained. The two compounds of nitrogen that are most absorbed by plants are ammonium and nitrate.
During the nitrogenating process, the number of free nitrogen ions (H +) in the soil increases, resulting in acidic soil. In addition, when plants absorb ammonium ions (NH4 +), they release hydrogen ions into the soil environment. As a result, with the help of compounds such as effective calcium carbonate (ECC), the excess acidity of the soil must be eliminated and the soil must be brought to a neutral state.
As mentioned above, too much fertilizer, or in other words, too much nitrogen, has negative effects on the plant. It also has a negative effect on the environment: Nitrogen in water has a high mobility, leakage of this substance from the waters of agricultural areas to other waterways can be dangerous. Therefore, although fertilizers are climate-friendly and economically viable, great care must be taken when using them to obtain the highest efficiency from them and to have the least harmful effect on the environment. Intelligent use of agricultural implements leads to the best results.
There are two ways to use this fertilizer which include the following:
In this method, it is dissolved in water and sprayed on plant leaves. This method is used for plants that can absorb directly (potatoes, wheat, vegetables and soy).
The second method involves applying urea to the soil. The process of breaking down into nitrate and ammonium is done by enzymes in the soil, which can sometimes take several weeks. However, studies show that the plant absorbs ammonium and nitrate more easily and It is done with a higher percentage.
Keep in mind that using this fertilizer in high concentrations may cause poisoning and damage to the plant, so always do a soil test before use to get the best results.
Consumption time is generally determined by the type of soil and the type of plant. For example, for cotton, it is added to the soil during cultivation, but for vegetables, this should happen during the growing season, or for wheat, the best time to use it is during germination.
It can also be applied to corn, winter wheat or any other small grain. However, this program should be in the cold seasons of the year because in hot periods (60 degrees Fahrenheit or higher), it comes in contact with the material. The plant tends to convert to ammonia, which reduces the nitrogen uptake into the plant.
It causes skin and eye irritation and respiratory problems. Constant exposure of the skin to this substance will cause the skin to swell. Its high concentration in the blood also causes damage to the organs of the body.
If you heat it above the melting point, it will decompose and produce toxic fumes and is not normally flammable, but when mixed with strong oxidants such as nitride, it can explode.
Because it absorbs moisture, you need to store it properly. Also, if you need mass storage, you should cover it with a special coating and waterproofing. It is also recommended that urea, as well as many other solid fertilizers, be stored in a cool, dry place with good ventilation.